My male chi Joey uses a litter box, but I put the litter box on pee pads, so that there's about a foot of pee pad outside the litter box on all 3 sides (except the wall side).
Like many males, his aim sometimes is unpredictable and he likes to aim AT something, so I also attach pee pads to the wall behind the box, because he is sometimes overzealous and hits over the box sides, tiny as he is.
To protect my carpets against any leakage, I found something called Good Nites bed pads. They are really large--intended to cover across a twin size bed--and they have adhesive on the corners to hold them in place on the carpet, and then I put the pee pads well inside the borders of those pads, which are waterproof backing. It works well.
Now, all I have to do is find a small fire hydrant that can go in his litter box!
And yes, he also gets in the box to do his business, but sometimes his butt hangs over the side. .)